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Research Article |

Martynia annua and Balanite Endocarp Activated Carbons to Remove Hg2+ and Pb2+ in Prepared Solutions Using Fixed-Bed Adsorption Column

Mercury (Hg) and lead (Pb) exposures to humans are sometimes from water bodies, which may damage the liver, kidneys, reproductive and developmental systems, immune, nervous, cardiovascular systems and can pass from the lungs to the bloodstream thereby affecting the oxygen carrying ability of the blood. As a result, this research seeks to produce a distinct activated carbon (AC) from Balanite aegyptiaca fruit endocarp (BAE) and Martynia annua fruits (MAF) via 4 methodological steps including reagent preparation, feedstock impregnation, carbonization and chemical activation using KOH at 600°C, to adsorbed Pb and Hg ions (Pb2+ & Hg2+) from an artificially prepared aqueous water solution. Proximate analysis, especially a fixed carbon and carbon yield contents of 97.68 and 87.62% for BAE and 94.94 and 91.97% for MAF initially reveals the potentials of the raw materials for AC production. Apart from 0.0017 equal porosity of ACs generated that portrays a low adsorption effect, surface areas of 1015.37 and 1080.15 m2/g for BAE-AC and MAF-AC respectively, are high and within the standard range. Flow controllers to release the solution whose initial metallic ion concentration is 0.313 g/mL, was made to operate at 1.67, 4.2, 7.42, 9.86, 11.56 and 13.33 mL/s in a locally built 13cm bed height continuous fixed-bed column. Findings shows that breakthrough curves from Bohart-Adams model and the purely empirical Freundlich isotherm parameters collectively signals a great potential of BAE and MAF for the adsorption of Pb2+ and Hg2+, making their ACs a viable resource for purifying contaminated water.

Activated Carbon, Balanite aegyptiaca, Martynia annua, Breakthrough Curves, Adsorption Column

APA Style

Abubakar, A. M., Luka, Y., Lebnebiso, J. S., David, A., Arowo, M. N. (2023). Martynia annua and Balanite Endocarp Activated Carbons to Remove Hg2+ and Pb2+ in Prepared Solutions Using Fixed-Bed Adsorption Column. American Journal of Chemical Engineering, 11(6), 102-116.

ACS Style

Abubakar, A. M.; Luka, Y.; Lebnebiso, J. S.; David, A.; Arowo, M. N. Martynia annua and Balanite Endocarp Activated Carbons to Remove Hg2+ and Pb2+ in Prepared Solutions Using Fixed-Bed Adsorption Column. Am. J. Chem. Eng. 2023, 11(6), 102-116. doi: 10.11648/j.ajche.20231106.11

AMA Style

Abubakar AM, Luka Y, Lebnebiso JS, David A, Arowo MN. Martynia annua and Balanite Endocarp Activated Carbons to Remove Hg2+ and Pb2+ in Prepared Solutions Using Fixed-Bed Adsorption Column. Am J Chem Eng. 2023;11(6):102-116. doi: 10.11648/j.ajche.20231106.11

Copyright © 2023 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License ( which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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