Volume 8, Issue 2, March 2020, Page: 36-47
Adsorption Studies of Oil Spill Clean-up Using Coconut Coir Activated Carbon (CCAC)
Ukpong Anwana Abel, Department of Chemical and Petrochemical Engineering, Akwa Ibom State University, Ikot Akpaden, Mkpat Enin L.G.A, Nigeria
Gumus Rhoda Habor, Department of Petroleum and Chemical Engineering, Niger Delta University, Wiberforce Island, Bayelsa State, Nigeria
Oboh Innocent Oseribho, Department of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering, University of Uyo, Uyo, Nigeria
Received: Mar. 25, 2020;       Accepted: Apr. 9, 2020;       Published: Apr. 23, 2020
DOI: 10.11648/j.ajche.20200802.11      View  491      Downloads  142
The adsorption of crude oil from water by using Potassium hydroxide (KOH) prepared from coconut coir activated carbon CCACKOH was investigated by batch adsorption under varying parameters such as adsorbent dosage, contact time, initial oil concentration, temperature and agitation speed. The morphological modification significantly increased the hydrophobicity of the adsorbent, thus creating a CCAC with a much better adsorption capacity for crude oil removal having a maximum adsorption capacity of 4859.5 mg/g at 304 K as evidently proven by FTIR and SEM analysis. The experimental results showed that the percentage of crude oil removal increased with an increase in adsorbent dosage, contact time and decrease in initial oil concentration. The experimental isotherm data were analysed using Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin, Toth, Sip and Redlich-Peterson isotherm equations and the best fitted isotherm model was Freundlich model with a high correlation coefficient (R2 = 0.999). The kinetic data were properly fitted into various kinetic models with Pseudo-second order model showing best fit having a correlation coefficient (R2 = 0.999) and Boyd model revealed that the adsorption was controlled by internal transport mechanism and film-diffusion was the major mode of adsorption. The crude oil adsorption was chemisorption and endothermic in nature (ΔH° = 134 KJ/mol.K) and the positive value of entropy (ΔS° = 0.517 KJ/mol.K) showed an increase in disorder and randomness at the adsorbent-adsorbate interface during the adsorption of crude oil from water. The decrease in Gibbs energy (ΔG°) with increasing temperature indicated an increase in the feasibility and spontaneity of the adsorption at higher temperatures. The prepared adsorbent showed significant capability to be used as a low-cost, re-generable and eco-friendly adsorbent in oil spill clean-up.
Coconut Coir Activated Carbon, Adsorbent, Hydrophobicity, Oleophilicity, Adsorption Capacity, % Removal of Crude Oil, Adsorption Studies, Chemical Activation.
To cite this article
Ukpong Anwana Abel, Gumus Rhoda Habor, Oboh Innocent Oseribho, Adsorption Studies of Oil Spill Clean-up Using Coconut Coir Activated Carbon (CCAC), American Journal of Chemical Engineering. Vol. 8, No. 2, 2020, pp. 36-47. doi: 10.11648/j.ajche.20200802.11
Copyright © 2020 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abdelwahab, O. (2014). Assessment of raw luffa as a natural hollow oleophilic fibrous sorbent for oil spill clean-up. National Institute of Oceanography and Fisheries, Alexandria, Egypt. Alexandria Engineering Journal, 53: 213-218.
Allan, S. E., Smith, B. W., Anderson, K. A. (2012). Impact of the deep-water horizon oil spill on bioavailable polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Gulf of Mexico coastal waters. Environmental Science and Technology, 46: 2033-2039.
Al-Majed, A. A., Adebayo, A. R. and Hossain, M. E. (2012). A sustainable approach to controlling oil spills. Journal of Environmental Management, 113: 213-27.
Kingston, P. F. (2002). Long-term environmental impact of oil spills. Bulletin of Spill Science and Technology, 7: 53-61.
Tamis, J. E., Jongbloed, R. H., Karman, C. C., Koops, W. and Murk, A. J. (2011). Rational application of chemicals in response to oil spills may reduce environmental damage. Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management, 8: 231-241.
National Response Team Science and Technology Committee, (2007). Application of sorbents and solidifiers for oil spills. North Chelmsford, MA. 31p.
Deschamps, G., Caruel, H., Borredon, M., Bonnin, C. and Vignoles, C. (2003). Oil removal from water by selective sorption on hydrophobic cotton fibres. Study of sorption properties and comparison with other cotton fibre-based sorbents. Environmental Science and Technology Journal, 37: 1013-1015.
Tsai, W. T., Chang, C. Y., Wang, S. Y., Chang, C. F., Chien, S. F. and Sun, H. F. (2001). Utilization of agricultural waste corn cob for the preparation of carbon adsorbent. Journal of Environmental Science and Health, 36 (5): 677-686.
Karan, C., Rengasamy, R. and Das, D. (2011). Oil spill clean-up by structured fibre assembly. Indian Journal of fibre and textile resources, 36: 190-200.
Tay, J. H., Chen, X. G., Jeyaseelan, S. and Graham, N. (2001). Optimizing the preparation of activated carbon from digested sewage sludge and coconut coir. Chemosphere, 44: 45-51.
Lim, T. T. and Huang, X. (2007). Evaluation of kapok (Ceiba pentandra (L.) Gaertn.) as a natural hollow hydrophobic-oleophilic fibrous sorbent for oil spill clean-up. Chemosphere, 66 (5): 955-963.
Tan, I. A. W., Hameed, B. H. and Ahmad, A. L. (2008). Optimization of preparation conditions for activated carbons from coconut coir using response surface methodology. Chemical Engineering Journal, 137: 462-470.
Manju, G. N., Raji, C. and Anirudhan, T. S. (1998). Evaluation of coconut coir carbon for the removal of arsenic from water. Water Resources, 32 (10): 3062-3070.
Phan, N. H., Rio, S., Faur, C., Coq, L. L. P., Cloirec, L. and Nguyen, T. H. (2006). Production of fibrous activated carbons from natural cellulose (jute, coconut) fibres for water treatment applications. Carbon, 44: 2569-2577.
ASTM, D 2867-91 (1991). Standard test methods for moisture in activated carbon. American Society of Testing and Materials. ASTM Committee on Standards. Philadelphia, PA. 10p.
ASTM, D 5832-98. (1999). Standard test method for volatile content of activated carbon. American Society of Testing and Materials. ASTM Committee on Standards. Philadelphia, PA. 12p.
ASTM, D 2866-94. (1999). Standard test method for Ash content of activated carbon. American Society of Testing and Materials. ASTM Committee on Standards. Philadelphia, PA. 8p.
ASTM, D 2854-96. (1999). Standard test method for Apparent density of activated carbon. American Society of Testing and Materials. ASTM Committee on Standards. Philadelphia, PA. 5p.
ASTM, D 3838-80 (1996). Refractories, Carbon and Graphic products; Activated carbon. American Society for Testing and Materials. Annual book of ASTM Standard, 15.01, ASTM, Philadelphia, PA. 14p.
Nwabanne, J. T. and Igbokwe, P. K. (2012). Application of response surface methodology for preparation of activated carbon from Palmyra palm nut. New York Science Journal, 5 (9): 18-25.
Olufemi, B. A., Jimoda, L. A. and Agbodike, N. F. (2014). Adsorption of crude oil using meshed corncobs. Asian Journal of Applied Science and Engineering, 3: 63-75.
Abowei, J. F. N. (2010). Salinity, dissolved oxygen, pH and surface water temperature conditions in Nkoro River, Niger Delta, Nigeria. Advanced Journal of Food Science and Technology, 2 (1): 36-40.
Daud, W. M. A. W. and Ali, W. S. W. (2004). Comparison on pore development of activated carbon produced from palm shell and coconut shell. Bioresource Technology, 93: 63-69.
Yang, K., Peng, J., Srinivasakannan, C., Zhang, L., Xia, H. and Duan, X. (2010). Preparation of high surface area activated carbon from coconut shells using microwave heating. Bioresource Technology, 101: 6163–6169.
Valix, M. Cheung, W. H. and McKay, G. (2004). Preparation of activated carbon using low temperature carbonization and physical activation of high ash raw baggase for acid dye adsorption. Chemosphere, 56: 493-501.
Pavia, G. S. and Lampman, G. M. (2009). Introduction to spectroscopy, 4th Edition, Scitech B. News, 322p.
Adebajo, M. O. and Frost, R. L. (2004). Acetylation of raw cotton for oil spill clean-up application: An FTIR and 13C MAS NMR spectroscopic investigation. Spectrochimica Acta, Part A: Molecular Biomolecular Spectroscopy, 60 (10): 2315-2321.
Onwuka, J. C., Agbaji, E. B., Ajibola, V. O. and Okibe, F. G. (2018). Treatment of crude oil contaminated water with chemically modified natural fibre. Applied Water Science Journal, 8 (86): 1-10.
Mopoung, S., Moonsri, P., Palas, W. and Khumpai, S. (2015). Characterization and properties of activated carbon prepared from tamarind seeds by KOH activation for Fe(III) adsorption from aqueous solution. The Scientific World Journal, 10 (1155): 415961.
Azeh, Y., Olatunji, G. A., Mohammed, C. and Mamza, P. A. (2013). Acetylation of wood flour from four wood species grown in Nigeria Using vinegar and acetic anhydride. International Journal of Carbohydrate Chemistry, 20 (2): 85-96.
Onwuka, J. C., Agbaji, E. B., Ajibola, V. O. and Okibe, F. G. (2016). Kinetic studies of surface modification of lignocellulosic Delonix regia pods as sorbent for crude oil spill in water. Journal of Applied Resource Technology, 14: 415-424.
Chung, S., Suidan M. T., Venosa, A. D. (2011). Partially acetylated sugarcane bagasse for wicking oil from contaminated wetlands. Chemical Engineering Technology, 34 (12): 1989-1996.
Rocha, C. G., Zaia, D. A.., Alfaya, R. V. and Alfaya, A. A. (2009). Use of rice straw as biosorbent for removal of Cu (II), Zn (II), Cd (II) and Hg (II) ions in industrial effluents. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 166: 383-388.
Kudaybergenov, K. K., Ongarbayev, E. K. and Mansurov, Z. A. (2012). Thermally treated rice coirs for petroleum adsorption. International Journal of Biological Chemistry, 1: 3-12.
Olufemi, B. A. and Otolorin, F. (2017). Comparative adsorption of crude oil using mango (mangnifera indica) shell and mango shell activated carbon. Environmental Engineering Research, 11: 1-27.
Thompson, N. E., Emmanuel, G. C., Adagadzu, K. J. and Yusuf, N. B. (2010). Sorption studies of crude oil on acetylated rice coirs. Scholars research library. Archives of Applied Science Research, 2 (5): 142-151.
Elkady, M. F., Hussien, M. and Abou-rady, R. (2015). Equilibrium and kinetics behaviour of oil spill process onto synthesized nano-activated carbon. American Journal of Applied Chemistry, 3 (3-1): 22-30.
Itodo, H. U. and Itodo, A. U. (2010). Surface coverage and adsorption study of dye uptake by derived acid and base treated mango seed shells. Journal of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Research, 2 (3): 673-683.
Rajakovic, O. V., Aleksic, G. and Rajakovic, L. (2008). Governing factors for motor oil removal from water with different sorption materials. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 154 (1–3): 558-563.
Sulyman, M., Sienkiewicz, M., Haponiuk, J. and Zalewski, S. (2018). New approach for adsorptive removal of oil in wastewater using textile fibers as alternative adsorbent. Acta Scientific Agriculture, 2 (6): 1-6.
Ahmad, A. L., Sumathi, S. and Hameed, B. H. (2005). Adsorption of residue oil from palm oil mill effluent using powder and flake chitosan: equilibrium and kinetic studies. Water Resources, 39 (12): 2483-2494.
Sidik, S. M., Jalil, A. A., Triwahyono, S., Adam, S. H., Satar, M. A. H. and Hameed, B. H. (2012). Modified oil palm leaves adsorbent with enhanced hydrophobicity for crude oil removal. Chemical Engineering Journal, 203: 9-18.
Wang, J., Zheng, Y. and Wang, A. (2012). Effect of kapok fibre treated with various solvents on oil absorbency. Industrial Crops and Products Journal (Elsevier), 40: 178-184.
Williams, N. E. and Nur, P. A. (2018). KOH modified Thevetia peruviana shell activated carbon for sorption of dimethoate from aqueous solution. Journal of Environmental Science and Health, pp: 2-15.
Lim, T. T. and Huang, X. (2006). In situ oil/water separation using hydrophobic-oleophilic fibrous wall: a lab-scale feasible study for groundwater clean-up. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 137: 820-826.
Lin, C. C. and Liu, H. S. (2000). Adsorption in a centrifugal field: Basic dye adsorption by activated carbon. Industrial Engineering and Chemistry Resources, 39: 161-167.
Wang, S. and Zhu, Z. (2007). Effects of acidic treatment of activated carbons on dye adsorption. Dyes pigment, 75: 306-314.
Senthilkumaar, S., Kalaamani, P., Porkodi, K., Varadarajan, P. R. and Subburaam, C. V. (2006). Adsorption of dissolved Reactive red dye from aqueous phase onto activated carbon prepared from agricultural waste. Bioresource Technology, 97: 1618-1625.
Gobi, K., Mashitah, M. D. and Vadivelu, V. M. (2011). Adsorptive removal of Methylene Blue using novel adsorbent from palm oil mill effluent waste activated sludge: equilibrium, thermodynamics and kinetics studies. Chemical Engineering Journal, 171: 1246-1252.
Lu, Z., Maroto-Valer, M. M. and Schobert, H. H. (2010). Catalytic effects of inorganic compounds on the development of surface areas of fly ash carbon during steam activation. Fuel Processing Technology, 89: 3436-3441.
Tan, I. A. W and Hameed, B. H. (2010). Adsorption isotherms, kinetics, thermodynamics and desorption studies of basic dye on activated carbon derived from oil palm empty fruit bunch. Journal of Applied Sciences, 10 (21): 2565-2571.
Eba, F., Gueu, S., Eya’A-Mvongbote, A., Ondo, J. A., Yao, B. K., Ndong, N. J. and Kouya, B. R. (2010). Evaluation of the absorption capacity of the natural clay from Bikougou (Gabon) to remove Mn(II) from aqueous solution. International Journal of Engineering and Science Technology, 2 (10): 5001-5016.
Hameed, B. H. and El-Khaiary, M. I. (2009). Malachite green adsorption by rattan sawdust: isotherm, kinetics and mechanism modelling. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 162: 344-350.
Mohanty, K., Das, D. and Biswas, M. N. (2005). Adsorption of phenol from aqueous solutions using activated carbons prepared from tectona grandis sawdust by ZnCl2 activation. Chemical Engineering Journal, 115: 121-131.
Auta, M. and Hameed, B. H. (2011). Preparation of waste tea activated carbon using potassium acetate as an activating agent for adsorption of Acid Blue 25 dye. Chemical Engineering Journal, 171: 502-509.
Bulut, Y. and Zeki, T. (2007). Removal of heavy metals from aqueous solution by sawdust adsorption. Journal of Environmental Science, 19: 160-166.
Abidin, M. A. Z., Jalil, A. A., Triwahyono, S., Adam, S. H. and Kamarudin, N. H. N. (2011). Recovery of Gold(III) from an aqueous solution onto a Durio zibethinus coir. Biochemical Engineering Journal, 54: 124-131.
Gopal, V. and Elango, K. P. (2007). Kinetic and thermodynamic investigations of adsorption of Fluoride onto activated Aloe Vera carbon. Journal of Indian Chemical Engineering Society, 84 (11): 1114-1118.
Gupta, V. K., Ganjali, M., Nayak, A., Bhushan, B. and Agarwal, S. (2012). Enhanced heavy metals removal and recovery by mesoporous adsorbent prepared from waste rubber tire. Chemical Engineering Journal, 197: 330-338.
Morrison, R. T., Boyd, R. N. and Bhattacharjee, S. K. (2011). Organic Chemistry. 7th Edition. Pearson Education Inc., Dorling Kindersley (India) Pvt. Ltd. 1441p.
Fomkin, A. (2009). Nano-porous material and their adsorption properties. Institute of Physical Chemistry and Electrochemistry. Russian Academy of Sciences, 45: 133-149.
Li, Q., Chai, L., Yang, Z. and Wang, Q. (2009). Kinetics and thermodynamics of Pb(II) adsorption onto modified spent grain from aqueous solutions. Applied Surface Sciences, 255: 4298-4303.
Browse journals by subject