Volume 8, Issue 6, November 2020, Page: 131-138
Modified Sulfonated Glucose-Catalyzed Esterification of Palm Fatty Acid Distillate: Kinetics and Fuel Properties
Haruna Mavakumba Kefas, Department of Chemical Engineering, Modibbo Adama University of Technology, Yola, Nigeria; Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, University Putra Malaysia, Selangor, Malaysia
Robiah Yunus, Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, University Putra Malaysia, Selangor, Malaysia; Malaysia Institute of Advanced Technology, University Putra Malaysia, Selangor, Malaysia
Umer Rashid, Malaysia Institute of Advanced Technology, University Putra Malaysia, Selangor, Malaysia
Yun Hin Taufiq-Yap, Catalysis Science and Technology Research Centre, University Putra Malaysia, Selangor, Malaysia; Department of Chemistry, University Putra Malaysia, Selangor, Malaysia
Received: Nov. 11, 2020;       Accepted: Nov. 24, 2020;       Published: Dec. 16, 2020
DOI: 10.11648/j.ajche.20200806.12      View  58      Downloads  48
Abstract
The employment of sugar acid catalysts for biodiesel synthesis from non-edible palm fatty acid distillate (PFAD) has received huge research interest in recent times by reason of their stability and high catalytic performance. Notwithstanding, the need to extend research on the kinetic characteristics of these heterogeneous catalysts is important in order to understand their reaction mechanisms. The present investigation deals with the kinetics for the esterification of PFAD by means of modified sulfonated carbonized glucose catalyst to biodiesel in a three necked conventional reflux batch reactor. The efficient catalyst was synthesized by sulfonation of incomplete carbonized glucose. The pseudo-homogeneous first and second order (equimolar) mechanism was utilized to interpret the data at optimum operating conditions of 10:1 molar fraction of methanol to PFAD, 4 h time of reaction and 4 wt.% quantity of catalyst at varying reaction temperature of 50-65°C. Furthermore, some important properties of the PFAD biodiesel produced were assessed utilizing ASTM methods. The experimental data best fitted the bimolecular model (equimolar) second order model. The activation energy was calculated to be 55.08 kJmol-1 which indicates that the catalyst was very active in the esterification of the PFAD to biodiesel. Most of the measured fuel properties of the PFAD biodiesel were comparable with the ASTM standards.
Keywords
Modified Sulfonated Glucose, Kinetics, Pseudo Homogeneous, Free Fatty Fcids, Biodiesel, Fuel Properties
To cite this article
Haruna Mavakumba Kefas, Robiah Yunus, Umer Rashid, Yun Hin Taufiq-Yap, Modified Sulfonated Glucose-Catalyzed Esterification of Palm Fatty Acid Distillate: Kinetics and Fuel Properties, American Journal of Chemical Engineering. Vol. 8, No. 6, 2020, pp. 131-138. doi: 10.11648/j.ajche.20200806.12
Copyright
Copyright © 2020 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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